ASHRAE 90.1 – (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning Engineers)
US standard that provides minimum requirements for energy-efficient designs for buildings, including the building envelope’s thermal and air permeance performance. The original standard was published in 1975 and has since been updated in 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 to reflect newer and more efficient technologies.
A mushroom like hole is drilled into the material using the KEIL patented undercut method. The diameter of the undercut hole is larger as the cylindrical channel hole. The KEIL drilling technique carries out the cylindrical and undercut drilling in one step with only one tool.
LEED Certification – (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)
There are four LEED rating systems: LEED for Building Design and Construction (BD+C), which includes residential design and construction; LEED for Interior Design and Construction (ID+C); LEED for Building Operations and Maintenance (O+M); and LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND). LEED for Cities/Communities is a pilot rating system that addresses performance in existing cities and communities.
Wind Load – This refers to any pressures or forces that the wind exerts on a building or structure. There are actually three types of wind forces that would be exerted on a building.
- Uplift Wind Load is an upwards force of the wind that would affect roof structures or similar horizontal structures in a building, such as canopies or awnings. The wind flow under a roof structure pushes the roof upwards, the wind flow over the horizontal structure pulls the roof upwards.
- Shear Wind Load is a horizontal pressure or force that can cause walls or vertical structural elements to tilt or crack, causing a building to tilt.
- Lateral Wind Load is another horizontal wind pressure that can make a structure move off its foundations or overturned.